Zero Point Energy Diode Project


Project Director:  Thomas Valone, PhD, PE

Integrity Research Institute

5020 Sunnyside Avenue, Suite 209

Beltsville MD 20705

Nonprofit 501(c)3 organization

202-452-7674, 301-220-0440

DIRECT: 301-513-5242

FAX: 301-513-5728


Executive Summary




The Zero Point Energy (ZPE) Diode Project has been an exciting development at IRI since the discovery in 2003 that semiconductor junctions exhibit measurable Johnson noise at any temperature, including microdegrees above absolute zero. This discovery has been exploited by the project director for the purpose of a new, renewable energy source. Though the evidence has been in the literature for years, no one except perhaps a twenty-year-old patent by Charles Brown, US #3,890,161, also teaches the basic technique for creating an array of metal-metal diodes for rectifying ZPE and creating a long lasting electricity source.


The US currently spends between 5 and 10 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) depending upon whether it is a resident or commercial customer. Furthermore, the US Electric Power Industry generates approximately 4,000 billion kWh on an annual basis ( These figures indicate that electricity consumption is about a $300 billion market waiting to be hijacked from the public utilities.


The production of electrical current using solid-state rectifiers is common-place with “thermionics”. However, the Seebeck or thermoelectric effect which produces electricity from dissimilar metals while at different temperatures is very inefficient. A few recent patents like Kucherov “Tunneling-Effect Energy Converters” #6,946,596 (visit and Hagelstein’s “Thermal Diode for Energy Conversion” #6,396,191 require at least 10°C temperature difference and a six meter cube pool of water to supply a house with electricity.


Since the electrical grid nationwide is aging, with an estimate cost of hundreds of billions to repair or upgrade to a “smart grid”, it is proposed that distributed single cubic-meter electricity generating units may instead by necessity become a reality in the near future with the emergence of zero point energy (ZPE) rectifiers deployed in the form of three-dimensional arrays. This event is predicted to create a disruptive effect on the public utilities, while it empowers ordinary individuals from all walks of life including third world countries, opening up vast areas of the world that are presently uninhabitable due to the lack of on-site energy generation capability.




This executive summary addresses the basic built-in voltage potential for all semiconductor p-n junctions and various rectifying devices suitable for generating DC electricity at “zero bias” (with no bias DC voltage applied whatsoever). Tunnel diodes are one class of rectifiers that are qualified. Even microwave diodes are good choices since many are designed for zero bias operation (see below). Reference articles are attached in the Appendix showing the use of “broadband spiral antennas” and phase conjugate mirrors for amplifying electromagnetic frequencies that make up quantum noise. The tunneling current in the diodes can also be influenced by the use of magnetic fields as low as 10 gauss as well. The recent discovery of a “Brownian Refrigerator” or “the world’s smallest fridge” that “rectifies thermal energy” accentuates the additional spin-off from the ZPE Diode Project:


       Every ZPE diode array will also rectify thermal noise and cause refrigeration


In the future scenario of global warming, thousands of people in temperate zones are at risk during the summer for heat stroke (2000 people died in France during a heat wave that lasted two weeks in 2002). Therefore, having a one-meter sealed cube that generates electricity and cools the building will serve two vital purposes. It will also make rural areas and third world countries habitable.


This executive summary ends with the complete reproduction of Christian Beck’s article “Could dark energy be measured in the lab?” and two of Koch’s journal article cover sheets that he references, proving the remarkable detection and quantification of zero point energy quantum fluctuations (nonthermal noise) in the lab.


Two private contractors, Tom Schum and Paul Lowrance, are offering their services in diode array construction and measurements.


This proposal is for a modest $350,000 investment over a one-year period, which will be sufficient for a production of a prototype as a proof of principle for electricity generation.


Summary Argument for the Use of Certain Diodes for ZPE Conversion

Chief Scientist Dennis Bushnell from NASA recently asked me for “substantive experiments” showing extraction of energy from the quantum vacuum, perhaps as a challenge to my book, Zero Point Energy: The Fuel of the Future. In reply, I centered upon the main discovery that I made, which is that there exists a class of diodes (rectifiers) that operate at “zero-bias” (no voltage applied to make them work) and up into microwave frequencies, that are suitable for generating trickle currents from the zero point energy quantum vacuum because of natural nonthermal electrical fluctuations (Johnson noise).

Furthermore, there are peer-reviewed journal articles that also show tunneling at zero voltage ("zero bias"). Several microwave diodes below in the book excerpt also exhibit this feature. However, you have to appreciate that looking in the noise level (1/f noise or Johnson noise) is where ZPE manifests. (That's where my first Practical Conversion of Zero Point Energy from the Quantum Vacuum for the Performance of Useful Work book and PhD thesis comes in.) Nature has also been helpful since Johnson noise in the diode is also generated at the junction itself and therefore, requires no minimum signal to initiate the conduction in one direction.


Substantive Experiments

The following US patents as the most significant in ZPE research: "Rectifying Thermal Electric Noise" by Charles Brown #3,890,161, and #4,704,622 by Capasso, which actually acknowledge ZPE for their functional nature (Note: is a good source of printable patents). Capasso is an IBM engineer and indicates that his tunneling device only works if ZPE is present, much like what Planck discovered a century ago and Koch detected decades ago in the lab (Koch, 1982). I tend to think that metal-metal nanodiodes probably will be a popular brand for ZPE usage with millipore sheet assembly, as Brown suggests. I also cite the work of Yasamoto, et al. (2004, Science, 304:1944) covering peptide molecular photodiodes just 1 nm across -- another example of a molecular tool for studying this zero point energy that shows up on the molecular level.

YES! These diodes demonstrate substantive, greater than uncertainty, generation of energy from ZPE. In fact, simple coils do as well, according to the published Koch articles. Don’t believe me? Check out the frenzy of activity that I cite concerning Puthoff's right hand man, Dr. Eric Davis, as well as Prof. Christian Beck overseas. Both of them finally woke up to the multiple papers that Koch published years ago as he carefully measured the electrical noise that should not have been happening in his coils. Eric just made a big deal about it at the 2006 STAIF conference which I attended and is trying to get Lockheed money to fund a REPLICATION of Koch's work (Davis et al., 2006), without going any further toward my recommendation of diode technology (in other words, he likes plain academic stuff without aiming for a commercial device). Professor Beck just wrote a book on ZPE after published a paper about dark energy being measurable in the laboratory (Beck et al., 2004).


I should also cite Dr. Fabrizio Pinto's work (Pinto, 1999), among others like the Brown patent, for making reasonable calculations of the energy density of arrays of vacuum engines like the ZPE diodes, which conservatively reach estimates of hundreds of kilowatts/cubic meter. Below is an excerpt from Chapter 5 of my book, Zero Point Energy: The Fuel of the Future to conclude with specific details that further help to explain zero bias diodes.


Custom Made Zero Bias Diodes

In 1994, Smoliner reported, for the first time, resonant tunneling while applying no voltage at all to the one-dimensional quantum wells that his team had created. They used “anharmonic oscillation” to substitute for zero point energy, which they ignored “for simplicity” though it was powering the tunneling of their electrons in each well. The  figure below shows the remarkable German achievement, where the electrons prefer a zero voltage bias for the best results.



Other diodes which exhibit the ability to rectify EMF energy include the class of "backward diodes" which operate with zero bias (no external power supply input). (See US patent 6,635,907 "Type II Interband Heterostructure Backward Diodes" and also US patent 6,870,417 "Circuit for Loss-Less Diode Equivalent")  These have been used in microwave detection for decades and have never been tested for nonthermal zero point energy fluctuation conversion. There is every reason to presume they include such ZPE radiation conversion in their everyday operation but it is unnoticed with other EMF energy being so much larger in amplitude. US Patent 6,635,907 from HRL Laboratories describes a diode with a very desirable, "highly nonlinear portion of the I-V curve near zero bias." These diodes produce a significant current of electrons when microwaves in the gigahertz range are present. Another example is US Patent 5,930,133 from Toshiba entitled, "Rectifying device for achieving a high power efficiency." They use a tunnel diode in the backward mode so that "the turn-on voltage is zero." Could there be a better device for small voltage ZPE fluctuations that don't like to jump big barriers?

A completely passive, unamplified zero bias diode converter/detector for millimeter (GHz) waves was developed by HRL Labs in 2006 under a DARPA contract, utilizing an Sb-based "backward tunnel diode" (BTD). It is reported to be a "true zero-bias diode" that does not have significant 1/f noise when it is unamplified. It was developed for a "field radiometer" to "collect thermally radiated power" (in other words, 'night vision'). The diode array mounting allows a feed from horn antenna, which functions as a passive concentrating amplifier. The important clue is the "noise equivalent power" of 1.1 pW per root hertz (picowatts are a trillionth of a watt) and the "noise equivalent temperature difference" of 10K, which indicate a sensitivity to Johnson noise, the source of which is ZPE. Perhaps HRL Labs will consider adapting the invention for passive zero-point energy generation (Lynch, et al., 2006).


Another invention developed in 2005 by the University of California Santa Barbara is the "semimetal-semiconductor rectifier" for similar applications, to rival the metal-semiconductor (Schottky) diodes that are more commonly known for microwave detection. These zero bias diodes can operate at room temperature and have a NEP of about 0.1 pW but a high "RF-to-DC current responsivity" of about 8 A/W (amperes per watt). Most importantly, the inventors claim that the new diodes are about 20 dB more sensitive than the best available zero-bias diodes from Hewlett-Packard (Young et al., 2005).

There also have been other inventions such as "single electron transistors" that also have "the highest signal to noise ratio" near zero bias. Furthermore, "ultrasensitive" devices that convert radio frequencies have been invented that operate at outer space temperatures (3 degrees above zero point: 3°K). These devices are tiny nanotech devices so it is possible that lots of them could be assembled in parallel (such as an array) to produce ZPE electricity with significant power density (Brenning et al., 2006).


Dr. Peter Hagelstein from Eneco, Inc. was thinking along the same lines when in 2002 he patented his "Thermal Diode for Energy Conversion" (US Patent 6,396,191) which uses a thermopile bank of thermionic diodes. These are slightly different, more like thermocouples, than the diodes that I am advocating. However, Hagelstein's diodes are so efficient that he predicts that, with only a 10°C temperature difference, a water pool of six meters on a side could supply the electricity for a house. He also suggests their use
as "efficiency boosters" for augmenting the performance of electric or hybrid cars.


Product Applications

Other devices which also will provide the fuelless electrical energy cars, planes and homes by simply using zinc oxide or titanium oxide films that can convert ambient heat into electricity, as used in photovoltaic panels. A few reports indicate that these work reliably for years. Such solid-state diode converters will also grab the nonthermal ZPE in the process and therefore can work in outer space, even without solar exposure, for spaceships and extraterrestrial settlements during dust storms and overnight. Recent


FIGURE 1.    Updated version of a Brown’s p-n junction (a) diode array (38) and (b) with parallel conductors (39) added (Kuriyama, A., Miyata, H., Otto, A., Ogawa, M., Okura, H., Fukutani, K., and Den, T., “Method for Manufacturing a Semiconductor Device”, U.S. Patent 7,183,127, Feb. 27,  2007, Fig. 4D and 4E).


developments in nanotechnology assure us that the contemplated diode array can be significantly shrunk in size with no loss of power density, as compared to the Brown patent estimate for example (Charles Brown #3,890,161) from thirty years ago. Brown suggests that metal-metal diodes probably will be a popular brand for ZPE usage with millipore sheet assembly. While Brown patented his invention back in 1975, his idea has been revived and rejuvenated by Kuriyama’s “Method for Manufacturing a Semiconductor Device” US Patent #7,183,127 which cites Brown’s patent and others with similar cylindrically shaped pores for p-n junction design. It is encouraging to note that Kuriyama’s preferred range of diameter for each cylindrical diode is not smaller than 1 nanometer (nm) and not larger than 10 nm, an order of magnitude smaller than Brown.


In addition, several references are cited for nano-hole and nano-wire construction techniques, especially with regard to p-n or p-i-n junctions. A typical example of aluminum-silicon nano-structures has achieved an average diameter of 3 nm per cylinder with a 7 nm spacing between them, with a length of 200 nm per cylinder. Kuriyama also notes that these dimensions also hold if germanium is substituted for silicon. He also includes the important option of an electrode plate on the top and bottom of the diode array, or an electro-conductive substrate for the bottom common conductor. The smallest diameter that Kuriyama cites as a practical example has a 1 nm cylinder width with a 3 nm spacing between the diodes in 1000 nm square semiconductor dies, as seen in Fig. 1. This creates a diode density of approximately 1012 diodes per cm2 which is on the order of self-assembled quantum dot GaAs Schottky diodes grown by atomic layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALMBE) with InAs dots which have a diode density of 1011 per cm2 (Hastas, 2003).


FIGURE 2. Plots of typical input noise root power spectrums for an FET input amplifier (Northrop, 1997)



Product Description


The most interesting arrangement of diodes and resistors may be a convenient 10 cm3 (10 cc) box but could be larger if the diode packing density requires it. The proposed DEAC box will perhaps involve a choice of 1) the Hastas self-assembled GaAs Schottky diodes or 2) the Kuriyama high density nano-size cylinder-shaped diodes, both estimated to be in the range of 1011 per cm2 diode density. Using a conservative packing density of 2 mm per layer (with 1.1 mm substrates), we can pack 5 diode array layers in 1 cc and therefore, 5000 diode layers in 10 cc. This raises the diode density to 5 x 1014 diodes (500 trillion diodes) in a 10 cc box. This is a favorable quantity for the estimated picowatt (1 to 10 pW) power level per diode, which yields a minimum of a 500 Watt DC generator from thermal and non-thermal noise combined, for the lowest estimate of 1 pW per diode. It is worthwhile noting that an array of a trillion molecular switches has been proposed using less than 100 zJ (100 x 10-21 joules) per switch based on direct experimental measurement of a single molecule (Loppacher, 2003). Loppacher et al. also note that it requires “less than a femtojoule of energy” to switch a solid state transistor, which may be useful in an advanced design of a switching DEAC for AC output. More information is available in the Space, Propulsion and Energy Conference paper (3Mb pdf) appended to the National Energy Policy Recommendation Report 2009 posted to the Obama Energy and Environment transition team January, 2009.




Beck, Christian and Michael Mackey, Astrophysics preprint, June 23, 2004 "Has Dark Energy Been Measured in the Lab?"


Brenning et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 114321, 2006


Davis et al., Review of Experimental Concepts for Studying the Quantum Vacuum Field, Space Technology and Applications International Forum—STAIF 2006, edited by M. S. El-Genk, p. 1390


Hastas, N. A., and Dimitriadis, C. A., “Low frequency noise of GaAs Schottky diodes with embedded InAs quantum layer and self-assembled quantum dots”, J. App. Phys., V. 93, N. 7, April 1, (2003), p. 3990.


Jeong et al., On the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the interwell electron tunneling rate in quasi two dimensional organic quantum wells, J. of Chem. Phys., Vol. 113, No. 17, November, 2000, p. 7613


Koch et al., Measurements of quantum noise in resistively shunted Josephson junctions, Physical Review B, Vol. 26, No. 1, July, 1982, p. 74


Lynch, Jonathan et al. "Unamplified Direct Detection Sensor for Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging" Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology IX, edited by Roger Appleby, Proc. of SPIE, V. 6211, 621101, 2006 - Also see: Schulman et al. "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes" IEEE Electron Device Letters 21, 2000, p. 353-355

Pinto, F., “Engine cycle of an optically controlled vacuum energy transducer” Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 60, No. 21, 1999


Smoliner et al., Tunnelling spectroscopy of 0D states, Semicon. Sci. Tech. Vol. 9, 1994, p. 1925


Valone, Thomas, National Energy Policy Recommendation Report 2009


Young, A.C. et al. "Semimetal-semiconductor rectifiers for sensitive room-temperature microwave detectors", App. Phys. Letters, V. 87, 2005, p.163506


Confirmation of DEAC Power Output


----- Original Message -----

From: "Paul" <>

To: "Thomas Valone" <>

Sent: Monday, November 17, 2008 10:57 AM

Subject: Re: Fw: My latest paper on ZPE conversion


Dear Thomas,

Thanks for the email and pdf file. I'll try to read your pdf/paper by

A brief (very brief) outline of my research is found at -->

And a brief outline of my diode research history -->

My research began by analyzing diode arrays by means of conventional
physics, where I quickly learned that low signal diode modeling
mathematics clearly predicts diode must rectify natural ambient thermal
energy.  Also, it's know that 2LoT is a macro (not micro) system of
averages, and even at that there's a known error rate with 2LoT.
Furthermore, I wrote a trapdoor simulation software where even the
trapdoor is made of atoms. When time permits I would like to release
this software. The sim shows how natural ambient thermal energy is
rectified. That was encouraging, so I began building a diode array.
According to my mathematics, a good inexpensive diode choice was the
SMS7630, made by Skyworks Inc. Since that time I built four diode
arrays. All four diode arrays have produced a DC voltage. The largest
diode array is a 156 in-series SMS7630, that produced up to 204uV DC @
800Kohms.  The measurements revealed some interesting so-called thermal
equilibrium diode effects. One effect is where the diodes appear to be
sensitive to change; i.e., temperature , current. One example -->

1. The diode array was producing 204uV DC.
2. For a period of about one hour, heat was quickly applied to the diode
array-- ~ 100F.
3. The heat was removed. The diode array was left alone at normal room
4. Over a period of roughly 5 days the DC voltage decreased each day
from 204uV to just over 10uV DC. Eventually the DC voltage slowly began
to increase.

After ~ two weeks from applying the heat, the diode array DC voltage is
now at 51uV, and climbing each day.  I cannot explain this effect with
electrochemical reactions. My experiments with electrochemical reactions
have shown the opposite effect in that the DC voltage from a dead
battery increases when heated up. It's possible there are some
electrochemical reactions that may have similar effects as the diode
array, but even if there are such electrochemical effects it's a far
stretch to think the SMS7630 diode produces a few microvolts DC from
electrochemical reactions. According to my estimate calculations, the
plate area of the SMS7630 is ~ 5um * 5um. That's not much area for a
battery. And what atoms would the chemical reactions consist of?  In an
attempt to begin to address the electrochemical possibility, I
electrically shorted the diode array for about one month. The diode
array still produced the DC voltage after removing the short.

I have used various types of custom built voltage meters. My best meter
uses an electrometer op-amp that produces under 50fA (50e-15 amps) of
bias current. I have tested the diode arrays inside various shields at
various locations. For example, the diode array was tested inside
*three* layers of shields (a small, medium, a very large) at various
locations in the California rural desert. My diode array has been in air
and inside an oil bath. So I've tried to take every known precaution. So
far, it has always produce a DC voltage.

IMO, it's still too early to say that diodes are rectifying thermal
energy, but it seems hopeful. I wrote another Microsoft Windows
application, Diode NATE, that uses semiconductor mathematics to predict
the DC voltage that a diode would produce. The present version is 0.3.
There's a lot of room for improvement since Diode NATE relies on Spice
parameters provided by the diode manufacture. Such parameters do not
reveal the inner details of the diode. Furthermore, Diode NATE considers
one type of noise, Johnson noise. So there's a lot of room for
improvement for Diode NATE, but the preliminary predictions made by
Diode NATE are relatively close to actual measurements, so far. Here are
a few predictions -->

My 156 in-series SMS7630 diode array:
Diode NATE: 79uV DC.
Maximum measured: 204uV DC.

Tom Schum's 1N34A 32x32 diode array (very difficult since there are
dozens of Spice models, and I don't have Tom's spice model):
Diode NATE: 0.21uV DC.
Measured, according to my analysis of Tom's data: ~ 0.5uV DC (if memory
holds true).

As you can see, so far it appears Diode NATE values are lower than
actual, about half, but we'll have to see. I would like to add that by
means of semiconductor physics, I calculated a realistic, yet
conservative, diode array that is predicted to produce 36 watts per
square foot, and 77 billion microscopic diodes per watt. I have not yet
calculated the zero bias resistance of such a diode array, and simply
used a conservative estimate, but it is my opinion that the actual
resistance would be considerably less. So it's possible the 36 watts /
sqft is low. Each Schottky diode junction plate is 100nm x 100nm,
heavily doped @ 5e+18 dopants/cc. The calculations were based on
Silicon, but heavily doped GaAs could be a better choice. Such a diode
array is easily fabricated, even with old technology. IMO, such a chip
consisting of a few hundred of such diodes, when connected to an
appropriate load, would cool down enough to measure the temperature drop.

IMO, after briefly going over your nice paper, our research appears
remarkably similar. You make reference to ZPE, which IMO is part of
thermal energy.

Paul Lowrance

Thomas Valone wrote:
> Hi Paul,
> Tom recommended that I contact you in regards to any functional diode
> array that you currently have which generates even a trickle current
> of picoamps. Our nonprofit is interested in funding any zero bias
> diode development project in that area.
> Attached is my paper on the subject. You might also enjoy one or more
> of my books on zero point energy as well.
> Sincerely,
> Thomas Valone, PhD, PE
> Integrity Research Institute
> 5020 Sunnyside Avenue, Suite 209
> Beltsville MD 20705
> 888-802-5243, 301-220-0440
> 800-295-7674, FAX: 301-513-5728


Prototype Design


With one layer of 1011 per cm2 diode density as the ideal test prototype, it is proposed to test a thousand diode array for voltage, current and power output as a Phase 1 prototype.


It is expected to confirm the expected 100 mW output from the conservative estimate of a single layer. Therefore, a thousand diode array will produce in the range of 100 nW.





FIGURE 3. Example of the Brown diode array using Millipore sheets







































































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